and PP constructs showed 39–47% of control for 3 of the 4 constructs while 1 construct yielded 100%. All constructs but 2 of the PP constructs were completely saturated by 100 seconds. Cross-sectional H&E slides of the construct reveal mononuclear cells dispersed throughout the construct, with a separate surrounding rim of cells at the edge of the synthetic material, with evidence of vascular growth. IHC staining reveals vascular ingrowth emanating from the pedicle, with VEGF expressed diffusely through the constructs. Macrophage staining and fibroblast lineage staining demonstrate that these cells emanate from both the pedicle and surrounding soft tissue.
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