General Relativity can be modified to explain observations that would otherwise infer the presence of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Several different modifications have been considered in the past few decades, a few of which will be discussed in this thesis, exploring both the theoretical and the observational aspects. MOND, TeVeS, Quintessence, f(R), Brans-Dicke, Horndeski and Galileon theories have been analyzed and summarized. A short description of screening mechanisms is also included.
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