To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose among urban university applicants in Eastern China.
The study uses data from the annual health examination among all students finishing high school who applied for university entrance in Changzhou City in 2012. In total, 6716 students aged 17-19 years had fasting blood glucose, alanine transaminase, height, weight and blood pressure measured. Impaired fasting glucose and diabetes were defined as fasting blood glucose ≥ 5.6 mmol/l (but < 7 mmol/l) and ≥ 7 mmol/l, respectively.
The overall prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and diabetes was 2.40% and 0.13%, respectively (3.67% and 0.09% in boys; 1.09% and 0.18% in girls). In total, 20.9% of boys and 10.6% of girls were overweight/obese. High socio-economic status was associated with an increased risk of diabetes/impaired fasting glucose, but the association was significant only among boys (adjusted odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.26-2.98). Alanine transaminase levels were significantly and positively related to diabetes/impaired fasting glucose risk. Overweight/obesity was significantly associated with increased risk of impaired fasting glucose/diabetes in girls, but not in boys. Moreover, the number of the above-mentioned risk factors (i.e. overweight/obesity, elevated alanine transaminase, pre-hypertension) was significantly and positively related to diabetes/impaired fasting glucose among both boys and girls.
Impaired fasting glucose was prevalent among urban university applicants, in particular boys and those of high socio-economic status in eastern China. Elevated levels of liver function enzyme appear to be the strongest risk factor for diabetes/impaired fasting glucose.
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